The need for plug-and-play interoperability – the ability to take a medical device out of its box and easily make it work with one’s other devices – has attracted great attention from both healthcare providers and industry. For instance, if a citizen of country A wants to purchase land in country B, the person will be asked to submit the proper address data. Address data in both countries include full name details, street name and number as well as a postal code. In the same language, it is not an obstacle to order the provided address data; but across language barriers, it becomes difficult. If the language uses a different writing system it is almost impossible if no translation tools are available.
The HAZOP technique is qualitative and aims to stimulate the imagination of participants to identify potential hazards and operability problems. Structure and direction are given to the review process by applying standardized guideword prompts to the review of each node. A relevant IEC standard calls for team members to display ‘intuition and good judgement’ operability definition and for the meetings to be held in “an atmosphere of critical thinking in a frank and open atmosphere [sic].” Interoperability (pronounced IHN-
-tee) is the ability of different systems, devices, applications or products to connect and communicate in a coordinated way, without effort from the end user.
The success of the study strongly depends on the alertness and concentration of the team members and it is therefore important that the sessions are not too long and that there are appropriate intervals between sessions. Each of these has an important role in reducing variability in intercommunication software and enhancing a common understanding of the end goal to be achieved. The following table gives an overview of commonly used guideword-parameter pairs (deviations) and common interpretations of them. Operability also refers to whether or not a surgical operation can be performed to treat a patient with a reasonable degree of safety and chance of success. Operability is considered one of the ilities and is closely related to reliability, supportability and maintainability.
- Operability is considered one of the ilities and is closely related to reliability, supportability and maintainability.
- However, it can also be applied at other stages, including later operational life of existing plants, in which case it is usefully applied as a revalidation tool to ensure that unduly managed changes have not crept in since first plant start-up.
- Functions of interoperable components include data access, data transmission
cross-organizational collaboration regardless of its developer or origin.
- The information contained in IMC 0326 provides inspectors guidance regarding the process for evaluating operability determinations performed by licensees and ensures inspectors evaluate licensees’ operability determinations consistently throughout the agency utilizing sound engineering practices.
- A hazard and operability study (HAZOP) is a structured and systematic examination of a complex system, usually a process facility, in order to identify hazards to personnel, equipment or the environment, as well as operability problems that could affect operations efficiency.
- This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.
Open standards rely on a broadly consultative and inclusive group including representatives from vendors, academics and others holding a stake in the development that discusses and debate the technical and economic merits, demerits and feasibility of a proposed common protocol. After the doubts and reservations of all members are addressed, the resulting common document is endorsed as a common standard. This document may be subsequently released to the public, and henceforth becomes an open standard. It is usually published and is available freely or at a nominal cost to any and all comers, with no further encumbrances. The vendors’ products compete on the quality of their implementation, user interface, ease of use, performance, price, and a host of other factors, while keeping the customer’s data intact and transferable even if he chooses to switch to another competing product for business reasons.
From our Multilingual Translation Dictionary
The extent of each node should be appropriate to the complexity of the system and the magnitude of the hazards it might pose. However, it will also need to balance between “too large and complex” (fewer nodes, but the team members may not be able to consider issues within the whole node at once) and “too small and simple” (many trivial and repetitive nodes, each of which has to be reviewed independently and documented). The U.S. government is making an effort to overcome the nation’s lack of public safety interoperability. The Department of Homeland Security’s Office for Interoperability and Compatibility (OIC) is pursuing the SAFECOM and CADIP and Project 25 programs, which are designed to help agencies as they integrate their CAD and other IT systems. Speaking from an e-government perspective, interoperability refers to the collaboration ability of cross-border services for citizens, businesses and public administrations. Exchanging data can be a challenge due to language barriers, different specifications of formats, varieties of categorizations and other hindrances.
Federated Search technology, which does not place format requirements on the data owner, has emerged as one solution to search interoperability challenges. In addition, standards, such as Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, Resource Description Framework, and SPARQL, have emerged that also help address the issue of search interoperability related to web resources. For process plants, identifiable sections (nodes) are chosen so that for each a meaningful design intent can be specified. They are commonly indicated on piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs) and process flow diagrams (PFDs).
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Data exchange between applications, databases and IT systems is crucial for the growth of modern technology, such as the IoT. Approaches to improving or achieving interoperability include conducting compatibility tests, engineering products with a common standard and using the same technology, coding language or syntax across multiple systems when appropriate. Because first responders need to be able to communicate during wide-scale emergencies, interoperability is an important issue for law enforcement, fire fighting, emergency medical services, and other public health and safety departments. Agencies tried to bridge this isolation with inefficient, stop-gap methods while large agencies began implementing limited interoperable systems. These approaches were inadequate and, in the US, the lack of interoperability in the public safety realm become evident during the 9/11 attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center structures. Further evidence of a lack of interoperability surfaced when agencies tackled the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.
There must be no unacceptable loss of power or handling deterioration after ingesting birds, rain and hail or ingesting or accumulating ice. Design and development responsibilities include the components through which the thrust/power-producing flow passes, ie the intake, compressor, combustor, fuel system, turbine and exhaust. They also include the software in the computers which control the way the engine changes its speed in response to the actions of the pilot in selecting a start, selecting different idle settings and higher power ratings such as take-off, climb and cruise. The engine has to start to idle and accelerate and decelerate within agreed, or mandated, times while remaining within operating limits (shaft speeds, turbine temperature, combustor casing pressure) over the required aircraft operating envelope. In a computing systems environment with multiple systems this includes the ability of products, systems and business processes to work together to accomplish a common task such as finding and returning availability of inventory for flight. For a medium-sized chemical plant, where the total number of items to be considered is around 1200 pieces of equipment and piping, about 40 such meetings would be needed. Various software programs are now available to assist in the management and scribing of the workshop.
How to pronounce operability?
Functions of interoperable components include data access, data transmission
cross-organizational collaboration regardless of its developer or origin. Similar to compatibility, interoperability helps organizations achieve higher efficiency and a more holistic view of information. The State Interoperability Executive Committee (SIEC), established by the legislature in 2003, works to assist emergency responder agencies (police, fire, sheriff, medical, hazmat, etc.) at all levels of government (city, county, state, tribal, federal) to define interoperability for their local region. Washington recognizes that collaborating on system design and development for wireless radio systems enables emergency responder agencies to efficiently provide additional services, increase interoperability, and reduce long-term costs.
For each node, in turn, the HAZOP team uses a list of standardized guidewords and process parameters to identify potential deviations from the design intent. Specialist software is now available from several suppliers to support the recording of meeting minutes and tracking the completion of recommended actions. The method is applied to complex processes, for which sufficient design information is available and not likely to change significantly. This range of data should be explicitly identified and taken as the “design intent” basis for the HAZOP study.
“Frozen” design information provided to the team members with time for them to familiarize themselves with the process, an adequate schedule allowed for the performance of the HAZOP, provision of the best team members for their role. Those scheduling a HAZOP should take into account the review scope, the number of nodes to be reviewed, the provision of completed design drawings and documentation and the need to maintain team performance over an extended time-frame. The team members may also need to perform some of their normal tasks during this period and the HAZOP team members can tend to lose focus unless adequate time is allowed for them to refresh their mental capabilities. Its origins have been described by Trevor Kletz, who was the company’s safety advisor from 1968 to 1982. In 1963 a team of three people met for three days a week for four months to study the design of a new phenol plant.
10 CFR Section 50.36 requires that each applicant for a license authorizing operation of a production or utilization facility include in its application proposed technical specifications (TS). This regulation also requires the TS to include limiting conditions for operation (LCO) and defines LCO as the lowest functional capability or performance levels of equipment required for safe operation of the facility. The regulation requires that when an LCO of a nuclear reactor is not met, the licensee shall shut down the reactor, or follow any remedial actions permitted by the TS until the condition can be met. All have in common that they want to push the development of the World Wide Web towards the semantic web.[dubious – discuss] Some concentrate on eGovernment, eBusiness or data exchange in general.
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However, it can also be applied at other stages, including later operational life of existing plants, in which case it is usefully applied as a revalidation tool to ensure that unduly managed changes have not crept in since first plant start-up. If two or more systems use common data formats and communication protocols then they are capable of communicating with each other and they exhibit syntactic interoperability. Low-level data formats also contribute to syntactic interoperability, ensuring that alphabetical characters are stored in the same ASCII or a Unicode format in all the communicating systems. Types of interoperability include syntactic interoperability, where two systems can communicate with each other, and cross-domain interoperability, where multiple organizations work together and exchange information. Interoperability can have a significant impact on the organizations concerned, raising issues of ownership (do people want to share their data? or are they dealing with information silos?), labor relations (are people prepared to undergo training?) and usability.